Final Project Evaluation "Re-use of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in Southern Gaza Strip"

 (via ReliefWeb)
Gaza, Palestinian Territory
Position Type: 
Organization Type: 
NGO/Civil Society
Experience Level: 
Not Specified


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Oxfam is a registered International Non-Governmental Organization. It is a member of Oxfam International, an international confederation of 17 organizations working together in 98 countries with partners and other allies around the world.

Oxfam focuses its activities on providing a comprehensive response to poverty, working cohesively in the four areas that constitute its identity: development cooperation, humanitarian action, faire trade, social mobilization, campaigns and education for global citizenship.


The Gaza Strip is a semi-arid area that is totally reliant on groundwater as a fresh water resource. The groundwater within the Gaza Strip is contained in a shallow sandy coastal aquifer, extending eastward and southward. In the Gaza Strip, the current abstraction from the aquifer far exceeds the natural recharge; where, the natural recharge has been estimated at 55-60 MCM/ year, while the current abstraction has been estimated at 183 MCM per year (PWA, 2013).

As a result of this in-equilibrium between abstraction and natural recharge, the groundwater quality has dramatically deteriorated. The water level has declined during the last few years to about 10-15 meters below sea level and that led to a damage in the aquifer through the invasion of the seawater to large parts of the aquifer (seawater intrusion) as well as upward leakage of the underneath saline brackish water. Such phenomena have significantly increased the salinity of the groundwater to an unacceptable limit, where more than 82% of the pumped water exceeds WHO drinking limit (250mg/l) in terms of chloride (Cl) concentration (PWA, 2017).

In addition to the groundwater salinity, the aquifer of the Gaza Strip suffers from high Nitrate pollution levels resulted from the infiltration of sewage into water resources, and the over application of Nitrate fertilizers. Currently, about 89% of the wells utilized for domestic water in the Gaza Strip contain more Nitrates than the WHO-recommended drinking limit (50 mg/l) (PWA, 2017).

Overall, when combining the problems of salinity and Nitrate pollution, it is concluded that more than 96% of the groundwater of the aquifer of the Gaza Strip exceeds the WHO standards in terms of quality (PWA 2017).

Within this context, the PWA, as a main regulator for water sector in the Gaza Strip, has developed its own strategy. This strategy considers a range of potential options for the water supply to the Gaza Strip in the future. Out of these options, the reuse of TWW to enhance the water availability for agricultural purposes, the transfer of distinct type of water from West Bank/ Israel and the introduction of seawater desalination.

In response to the increasing water crisis in the Gaza Strip, The Sustainable Water Integrated Management programme (SWIM) phase II project, funded by European Union, has been implemented in the southern Gaza Strip by Oxfam, in partnership with the Palestinian Agricultural Relief Committee (PARC) and Palestinian Environmental Friends (PEF) between April 1st, 2017 and March 31st 2020.

The title of this project is Construction of a wastewater post treatment plant and its associated carrier pipelines in North Mawasi Rafah. This project goes in line with the strategic objectives of the Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) in relation to the utilization of wastewater, as an alternative resource, in irrigation. This practice, wastewater reuse, will decrease the pressure on the aquifer and will contribute to the decreasing the deterioration in the groundwater quality over the coming years.

The main goal of the SWIM II project is to contribute to more sustainable water and agricultural

practices in Palestine through reducing land-based sources of marine pollution, with the specific objective to strengthen integrated water resource management in the Gaza strip through innovative environmental and agricultural solutions in southern Gaza (Rafah and Khan Younis Governorates).

This project is a part of a national project, that comprises three post treatment plants. Here, it is worthy to mention that PECDAR (local institution), with a funding from JICA is currently constructing the second post treatment plant and UAWC is planning to construct the third plant.

By the establishment of the three plants, 11,000 cubic meters of tertiary treated wastewater will be pumped to irrigate farms within Rafah Governorate. it is expected that the whole population of Rafah Governorate will benefit from the project (estimate: 213,144 individuals).

In terms of Oxfam intervention, through SWIM II project, The action is implemented by Oxfam and its partners PEF and PARC, with full support and coordination from the Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) and Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). Meanwhile, Oxfam formalized a project steering committee at the beginning of the action including all relevant stakeholders who are managing, supporting, implementing, or provide financial resources for the Treated Waste Water Reuse (TWWR) in the Gaza Strip. The project Steering Committee included the following Organizations: The Coastal Municipal Water Utility (CMWU), UNDP, Palestinian Economic Council for Development and Reconstruction (PECDAR), the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), Ministry of Health (MoH), Palestinian Water Authority (PWA), and the Environmental Quality Authority (EQA).

This coordination body aimed to have regular coordination, consultation, and providing technical advices and supervision on all the treated waste water reuse process at the main treatment plant in Rafah.

The following “Project Scope” Section provides more elaboration about the project theory of change and Oxfam specific intervention details.


Oxfam are conducting a bidding process and invites your submission of a proposal to provide Oxfam, within their requirements, for:

Conducting An Overall Final Project Evaluation For EU Funded Project Of “Re-Use Of Treated Wastewater For Agricultural Irrigation In Southern Gaza Strip”

How to apply:

A detailed description of the assignment, services required by Oxfam and conditions of participating in this bidding is contained in the RFQ dossier and can be downloaded from the following link:

19/170/OPTI-GAZA_RFQ Dossier

The deadline for submission of bids is 17th December 2019 at 4pm (Gaza time) upon conditions in the RFQ dossier.

Responses (Offers) shall be sent only to ( without ccing any other email addresses. Any offers sent through other channels will not be considered.

Offer shall be sent in 2 separate files - PDF format - (one for Technical Offer and one for Price Offer)

Email subject must contain the following reference: (OXFAM - 19/170/OPTI-GAZA)

Oxfam does not bind itself to award the tender to the lowest offer and reserves the right to accept the whole or part of the tender.

We look forward to receiving a proposal from you and thank you for your interest in our account.